According to the Mythology, the god Neptune, helping Zeus while he was combating the Titans, he was pursuing the terrible giant Polyvotis on the beachside and in the seas. Arriving in front of the island of Kos he detached with his trident a part of the island, he launched it against Polyvotis and he buried him underneath. The island of Nisyros is created by this fragmentary part of the island of Kos. The volcano was created in the place where the mouth of Polyvotis is whereas the periodical earth vibrations are also due to the continuous laboured breathing of the buried Titan's chest.
The 5th and 4th cent. before J-C. constitute the period of the island's great prosperity. Nisyros is taken by the Persians, is freed by the Athenians, participates to the Athenian alliance, passes to the Macedonian occupation to be finally part of the Roman Empire. After the Roman and Byzantine peace, thanks to which the islands experienced times of prosperity, as they united the West to the East, follow centuries of misery, horror and insecurity that were established by the Arabs. The seas no longer offer security and the people are leaving the beachside. The ancient Nikaia which was abandoned and of which the inhabitants have built a residential complex in a mountainous fortress called Nikeia, constitutes a characteristic example in the island of Nisyros.
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